Intangible Cultural Heritage Inventory - Avalon

The Avalon Peninsula is the oldest region to be settled. The Avalon stems from Chance Cove, located on the Western Isthmus to the shoreline town of Trepassey in the South. Its home to bustling urban centres like St. John's, a city full people who create and recreate traditions this province has known for years. From the downtown vibrancy of a city embracing both the old world and the new, full of music, boutiques, art, culture, to charming, historic, outport communities gathered around its coast it is a land of firsts. It was here Marconi ushered in the modern era of long-distance wireless communications by receiving the first transatlantic signal atop Signal Hill in 1901. And, of course, it was here the oldest city in North America, St. John's, was founded. You can find people in this great area of the province passing on the traditions of boatbuilding in Winterton or making hooked mats from old clothing cut into strips in Bay Bulls.

The Baccalieu Trail, Bay Roberts, Branch, Brigus, Calvert, Ferryland RNC, Port Royal, St. John's, Quidi Vidi, The Battery, Witless Bay

Baccalieu Trail Heritage Corporation Collection

The Baccalieu Trail Heritage Corporation is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to preserving, promoting and protecting the heritage of the Baccalieu Trail Region. The Baccalieu Trail region of Newfoundland and Labrador consists of approximately 70 communities along 240km of coastline on a peninsula that forms the north side of Conception Bay and the south side of Trinity Bay, on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula. Some of the oldest European settlements in North America were established in the Baccalieu Trail region including Cupids, in 1610; the Bristol's Hope Plantation established at Harbour Grace by 1618; and Carbonear settled by circa 1631. This collection includes filmed oral histories collected in 2005 by the Baccalieu Trail Heritage Corporation from over 40 elders who grew up in the area. This particular project includes memories of living and working in the area, going to school, children's games, home remedies, the first modes of transportation, supernatural beliefs and traditional industries, such as fishing. The collection also includes a large number of photographs, many digitized from the Corporations 35mm slide collection.

Bay Roberts

European fishermen were visiting Bay Roberts as early as the 1500s.Fishermen from Brittany and Normandy in what is now France fished the waters off the coast of Bay Roberts in the early 1500s and named the harbour Baie de Robert. They established onshore fishing rooms where they dried and salted codfish. These fishermen came to the area because of its large harbour, and flat rock beaches that they used for curing fish. Evidence of these European people can be found in community place names such as Priaulx Hill and in nearby names such as Spaniard's Bay and Port de Grave.

The Town of Bay Roberts was incorporated in 1951 after Premier Joseph Smallwood suggested that if the Town had its own council, it could take care of paving its own roads. In the time since its incorporation, Bay Roberts has seen many changes. In the past fifteen years, the number of services has greatly increased from two main businesses to a town whose economy depends upon its service industry. Bay Roberts has become the main business centre for a large part of Trinity and Conception Bays. Vast improvements have also been made in the area of recreation with the modernization of the swimming pool and the development of the ball fields and tennis courts.


The Branch inventory is a collection of photographs and associated information on the placesin and around Branch, St. Mary's Bay. The collection focuses on place names and their history as a way to portray the close relationship between people, land and ocean. The intangible cultural heritage of Branch is centered around a close relationship with nature. This collection provides a glimpse at the vast repository of knowledge regarding self-sufficient, self-sustainable, and environmentally friendly living.

Research for this collection was conducted between Summer 2008 and early-2010 by the Branch Cultural Historical Association with funding provided by the Cultural Economic Development Program of the Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation. The presented material is a portion of that gathered from oral interviews with residents and those who grew up in Branch, as well as research of local and provincial written and online material. Researchers included Lorna English, Linda O'Keefe and Margaret Power. Kenneth Nash was very generous in sharing parts of his personal research collection. The text was written by Michael Mooney.


Brigus stands at the forefront of Newfoundland's heritage settlements. The origin of the name Brigus is not known for sure. One theory has it coming from the town names of Brickhouse or Brighouse, in Yorkshire, England. Another has the name coming from the French word for intrigue or plot, Brigue. The town counts among its settlers, pioneers from England, Ireland and Wales. It was at one time one of the major sealing ports. In 1847, Brigus sent sixty-six vessels to the seal hunt and over half were captained by natives of Brigus.

The birthplace of Captain Robert A. Bartlett, the master mariner of arctic fame has immortalized the town in the annals of history. The monument at Bishop's Beach is a major tourist attraction, while Hawthorne Cottage (Bartlett's home in Brigus) has been declared a National Historic site.


Prior to January 30, 1922, Calvert was known as Caplin Bay, sometimes spelled Capelin Bay, said to be named for the large number of capelin that were fished by early settlers there. As several other Newfoundland communities had similar names, such as Capelin Cove. In light of the necessities of the postal service, in the early 20th century, the Newfoundland Nomenclature Board made efforts to reduce duplication of place names. It responded favourably to a petition collected by the parish priest of Ferryland, Father Alfred Maher, in 1922, to change the name of the settlement in honour of Sir George Calvert, First Baron Baltimore. In the early seventeenth century, Calvert was also the founder of the Colony of Avalon, nearby the settlement now known as Ferryland.

Cape Broyle

It is believed that the name Cape Broyle is derived from the Portuguese word brolle, meaning to roar, and refers to a ledge of sunken rock jutting out from the cape causing white water to form at the bay's entrance. However, despite this Portuguese influence, it was in fact the Irish who are credited with giving the community its official start in the 1780s. Present day Cape Broyle continues to nuture its ties to the sea. The main employer in town is a fish processing facility that provides employment not only to Cape Broyle residents, but to those of neighbouring communities as well. Meanwhile, recent years have seen economic diversification into other areas such as manufacturing and eco-tourism.

Cape Race

Cape Race is a point of land located at the southeastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on the island of Newfoundland, just northwest of the most popular transatlantic shipping route. Its name is thought to come from the original Portuguese name for this cape, "Raso", meaning flat or low-lying. The Cape appeared on early sixteenth century maps as Cabo Raso and its name may derive from a cape of the same name at the mouth of the Tagus River in Portugal.

The cape was the location of the Cape Race LORAN-C transmitter until the system was decommissioned in 2010. The Cape was a critical point for marine navigation in the early days of transatlantic travel and many a sailing vessel wrecked along its rocky shore. It is also home to the Cape Race Lighthouse, notable for having received the distress call from Titanic and coordinating the rescue with Carpathia and other nearby vessels.

Cape Race served as a vital wireless outpost into the mid-20th century when improvements in radio technology made the radio site obsolete. The region is now home to a lighthouse keeper's residence, the historic lighthouse, various government buildings, and the Myrick Center where one can be immersed in the region's communications history and Titanic lore.


Carbonear is a town on the Avalon Peninsula and overlooks the west side of Conception Bay. It was first settled by people from West Country England in the early 1600s, making it one of the oldest permanent settlements in Newfoundland and among the oldest European settlements in North America. The community has a history long tied to fishing and shipbuilding. Since the late 20th century, its economy has changed to emphasize education, health care, retail, and industry.

Ferryland RNC

Historic Ferryland Museum is located in the old Courthouse just a shortwalk from the Colony of Avalon. The building was manned by the Newfoundland Constabulary and served the Southern Shore as a Courthouse for approximately 40 years until its closure shortly after Newfoundland joined Confederation in 1949. The main floor held the courtroom, magistrate's office, jail cell and telegraph office. Upstairs was a residence for the Newfoundland Constabulary member and his family. During its term as a courthouse, six officers served this area and lived in the building: O'Flaherty, Manning, Power, Lake, Hogan and Costello.

Ferryland Museum is presently conducting research on the six officers and the role they played in the history of the building and this entire area. It is their intention to use the information collected for their files which will be made available to the public for research purposes. Information will also be used for the development of an exhibit which will become part of the permanent collection of Historic Ferryland Museum. They are grateful to the people who granted interviews and donated photographs and/or information for this project.

Harbour Grace

Harbour Grace is located in Conception Bay on the Avalon Peninsula in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. With roots dating back to the sixteenth century, it is one of the oldest towns in North America. It is located about 45 km northwest of the provincial capital, St. John's. The town has a population of 3,074 (2006), engaged primarily in fishing and fish processing.

Heart's Content

Heart's Content is located on the Bay de Verde Peninsula along the shores of Avalon's Trinity Bay. It is a community with an occupational history that sets it apart from most other Newfoundland fishing villages. While the fishery is the primary reason that people first arrived and settled in the region--a recorded history that goes as far back as the early 1600s--it wasn't until the landing of the transatlantic telegraph cable in 1866 that the community gained notoriety. This successful cable landing connected North America to the Europe which resulted in Heart's Content becoming an important hub in international communications. It was a role that brought with it a substantial increase in population, attracting workers from both Canada and England. With this new demographic, Heart's Content was introduced to cultural activities, lifestyles, and social classes that were previously unfamiliar in such outport communities.

In 2001 the cable landing was designated a National Historic Event by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Remnants of this cable are still on the beach for visitors to see. The nearby Cable Station, built in 1876, remains virtually untouched today as a testament to Heart's Content's telegraphic history. This building is protected as a National Historic Site and is open to the public as a museum. Heart's Content also has an officially designated heritage district which holds at least 18 buildings of historic significance, many of which were built by the cable company.

This designation was made possible through a cooperation between the Heart's Content Town Council and the Mizzen Heritage Society. The photographs in this collection belong to the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador as part of an inventory of Heart's Content's heritage features for their heritage districts initiative.

Heart's Delight-Islington

Located on the south side of Trinity Bay, the community was formed in 1972 by amalgamating the formerly independent settlements of Heart's Delight and Islington. Heart's Delight was settled in the late 18th century. The earliest reference to Heart's Delight in the Trinity parish records is the birth of Elizabeth Wolfrey, daughter of William and Elizabeth, in 1785. The first settler is believed to have been a man named Bryant. Islington, south of Heart's Delight, was originally called Island Cove, but the name was later changed to Islington after a village in England. It was settled around the same time as Heart's Delight.


"Hollyrode" first appeared on hydrographer John Thronton's 1675 map. Hollyrode has been interpreted by historians as an old English name for "Holy Cross" from the ancient Anglo Saxon word "rode" meaning staff or cross. The earliest settlement is believed to be in 1689, the Martin O'Neil property, which was located at the center of the main beach. Holyrood's indirect role in the fishery played a vital role in its settlement. Holyrood harbour offered a consistently rich supply of bait species including caplin and squid to those vessels on route to the Grand Banks and Labrador.

Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove

Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove is located about 10 minutes' drive outside of the city of St. John's and adjacent to the Town of Torbay on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula.

The area encompassing Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove was within the boundaries of lands granted to the London and Bristol Company in 1610. In 1627, the company experienced financial difficulties and evidently made lands available to private groups. The name Logy Bay itself first appears on Southwood's map of 1675, however, permanent settlement did not begin until the early 19th century.

The early settlers of Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove were immigrants predominantly from Irish counties. These early settlers were attracted to the area by the easy access to the excellent fishing grounds that lay just offshore and by the good farmland that dotted the region.

The materials in this collection are part of the Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove Museum's collection and were digitized in partnership with the Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador.


Marysvale is a community in Conception Bay that was originally known as Turks Gut. There are many legends relating to the origins of the original name of the community. Marysvale is the location of the Turks Gut Heritage House.

Mount Pearl

Mount Pearl is one of the largest communities in Newfoundland and Labrador.Located southwest of St. John's, it has a history of farming dating back to the early 1800s. In 1829 the city's namesake Commander Pearl arrived in Newfoundland and was granted a thousand acres of land which would form part of the city. Mount Pearl developed through the 1800s with farms and country houses and this development led to an increase in residential and industrial development. As of 2014 Mount Pearl is home to 25,000 residents and is bustling with commercial growth.

New Perlican

New Perlican is a town on the Baccalieu Trail in Trinity Bay, Newfoundlandand Labrador. The town has a population of approximately 190 people and is one of the oldest settlements in the province. The community was mentioned by one of the first settlers at the Cupids Colony in 1619. The community has an active heritage group which focuses on recognizing and celebrating the community's tangible places and intangible stories.

North River

North River is a town located on the East coast of Newfoundland on the Avalon Peninsula, previously known as the Northern Gut. The town was first settled in the mid-1800s, most likely by the fishing community from the Port de Grave Peninsula who built winter homes and summer gardens along the river. In 1874, a Roman Catholic church and school were built in North River, suggesting the presence of a permanent population. In 1857, the combined population of North River and the neighboring community of Hall's Town was 335 people. A majority of the Roman Catholic population lived in North River, while Protestant residents, including the Hall family, settled in Hall's Town. North River was incorporated in 1964 and amalgamated with Halls Town in 1988. This collection includes photographs and oral histories of North River and residents' memories about growing up in the community, including food memories, family histories, school, work, and religion.

O'Brien Family Farm

The O'Brien Farm is situated within the City of St. John's between Mount Scio Road and Oxen Pond Road. The thirty-two acre property is located within Pippy Park and is adjacent to the MUN Botanical Gardens.

The O'Brien family immigrated to St. John's from southeastern Ireland. John O'Brien (1791-1857) established a farm in Freshwater, two miles west of St. John's, in or around 1818. From its establishment, this farm was operated by O'Brien family for 190 years until the family's last descendant, Aloysius Patrick O'Brien, passed away in October 2008. The O'Brien Farm is made up of a series of fields, pasture lands, gardens, woodlands, waterways, a ca. 1850s-era cottage, and later outbuildings.

In 2010, the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador acquired the farm to be developed as an historic site. In 2011, the O'Brien Farm Foundation was founded The to manage, preserve and develop the property as a sustainable historic resource and visitor destination. The O'Brien Farm as an historic site focuses on a number of themes: Irish settlement in Newfoundland; Irish-Newfoundland culture and tradition; farming history in Newfoundland; sustainable farming practices; the story of the O'Brien family.

The collection of materials relating to the O'Brien Farm comes, first, from a series of interviews that Dr. Jo Shawyer, Department of Geography, Memorial University, did with Aly O'Brien during 1992-1994. Other materials include photographs from the O'Brien Family photograph album, and photographs taken over the years on the farm by visitors and friends. A series of newspaper clippings, written reports, and other miscellaneous printed ephemera are also included. The original audio recordings are deposited in the MUN Folklore and Language Archive, while the photographs and printed materials are in the possession of John and Maura Mannion.

Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove

Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove is apicturesque town and historic fishing village of approximately 950 people located on the eastern shore of the Avalon Peninsula in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is nestled deep in the heart of Motion Bay, just south of St. John's. The town is approximately 200 years old although it has been used as a fishing harbour since the 1500s. Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove is the site of the first hydroelectric generating station (Petty Harbour Generating Station) in the province and has also been the location for several movies, films and television shows. The fishery continues to play a major role in Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove. A wide variety of species are caught today including caplin, cod, crab, herring, lump fish, lobster, mackerel, mussels, squid and whelk.

The Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove inventory is a collection of photographs, audio interviews, and associated information on Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove. The collection includes memories of growing up in the area, going to school, children's games, community concerts and events, music and songs, and traditional industries, such as the fishery.

Port Royal

Port Royal is a small community located on the west side of Long Island,Placentia Bay. It presently consists of around fifteen cabins, populated during the summer by former residents of the town. Once a thriving fishing village, Port Royal was depopulated beginning in the early 1960s as part of the resettlement program. Families that had lived and fished in the area since the mid-19th century suddenly found themselves living in larger, less isolated communities on the island of Newfoundland. After this upheaval, the Port Royal townsite remained vacant for several decades. This changed in 1993 when, inspired by a community reunion, several families from Port Royal decided to go back home and build cabins where their houses once stood.

During its most populated era as a town, Port Royal had between 80 and 100 residents, most of whom were dependent on the local fishery. Despite geographic isolation, these residents did not go without as they benefited from nearby Harbour Buffett -- a commercially successful community located a short walk from Port Royal. Harbour Buffett was home to W.W. Wareham & Sons Ltd. which was an important fish merchant business that serviced not only the Merasheen Islands, but communities along the west coast of the Avalon Peninsula as well. This business operated successfully until 1967 when, like Port Royal, Harbour Buffett was forced to evacuate the island.

The headstone rubbings in this collection are from Port Royal's only cemetery, located on a hill just above the waterfront cabins. This cemetery was put out of use during resettlement and up until the 1993 reunion, went untouched. These days it is being maintained by residents of the cabin community whose ancestors are buried here. In the summer of 2012, the Port Royal Cemetery underwent a restoration project which saw to the cleaning and repair of its 35 headstones. These rubbings were collected after the headstones were brought back to their original appearance.

Portugal Cove-St. Philip's

Portugal Cove-St. Philip's is a rapidly growing town outside St. John's. While it is a growing modern town it maintains its traditional culture and feel. Portugal Cove-St. Philip's has a rich history rooted in fishing, agriculture, and transportation.

Local folklore says that Portugal Cove was settled as early as 1500 by fishermen attracted to the area. Of the people attracted to the area in the 1500's, the most famous was the Portuguese explorer Gaspar Corte Real. Folklore suggests that Corte Real came ashore to bury two sailors in the area locally known as "The Geeze". Settlement began around 1765 in St. Philip's. In the early days, Portugal Cove was better known for its fishery and St. Philip's was better known for farming.

The first road in Newfoundland was built in Portugal Cove. Construction started in 1825 and was completed and opened in 1831. Prior to this any transportation would have been done by sea usually using small locally owned boats. Ferry services transporting people and goods back and forth from both Portugal Cove and St. Philip's to Bell Island dates back hundreds of years. The first packet, or mail boat, began operation in 1808 and continued until the establishment of the train system in 1884. The ferry service to Bell Island from Portugal Cove began in 1874 and the first car ferry began operation in 1928.

Pouch Cove

Pouch Cove is located about 25 km north of St. John's near Cape St Francis. Pouch Cove was officially incorporated in 1970, and encompasses the smaller rural settlement of Shoe Cove. Pouch Cove's origins date back to 1611, making it one of the earliest settlements in Newfoundland. Each year British fishing fleets came to Newfoundland's rich fishing grounds, and the fishermen, carpenters and blacksmiths aboard were the first to settle the area. The site was selected for its dangerous harbour, which dissuaded the Royal Navy from searching the shores at a time when the British government was discouraging permanent settlement. By 1800, the area had attracted enough homesteaders to formally establish a community. Most early settlers combined mixed farming with seasonal work as fishermen or sealers. Many raised cattle and vegetables for sale in St John's. In the 1940s, military bases and the airport at Torbay opened up new employment possibilities, as did the completion of a paved highway to St John's. As of 2016, Pouch Cove was home to 2069 residents.

Salmon Cove

Salmon Cove is located 125 km from St. John's, on the Bay De Verde Peninsula. Salmon Cove became an incorporated town in August of 1974. The original residents of Salmon Cove settled there due to the abundance of fish, and the fishery became the mainstay, until the mines opened on Bell Island in 1895. In 1967 the mines were closed influencing many former Salmon Cove residents to return to the fishery. Many of the residents work at fish plants in Carbonear and Bay de Verde, while others commute to nearby communities.

Spaniard's Bay

Spaniard's Bay is located on the Baccalieu Trail in Conception Bay North, Newfoundland and Labrador. The town's name is derived from Jersey fishermen who fished the shores of Newfoundland at the turn of the 15th century. Although settlement was initially seasonal permanent settlement in the area began around 1776. The major industry was the fishery which has diversified over time. The town incorporated in 1965, and in 1991 the neighbouring community of Tilton joined the municipality. Today the town has a population of 2700 residents.

St. John's

St. John's: As the provincial capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, the city enjoys an extensive and vibrant history as the oldest English-founded city in North America. In the last half of the twentieth century, The city is famed for its nightlife and rich musical culture. The downtown area is widely known as the cultural hub of St. John's and is a major tourist destination in Atlantic Canada.

The St. John's digital collection consists of collected materials surrounding occupational folklore in the area and local oral histories.

St. Patrick's Parish

St. Patrick's Parish of Brigus was founded in 1824 with the arrival of its first Parish priest, Rev. Fr. Denis Mackin. Starting with a small cemetery on the corner of Chapel Lane and Irishtown Road, the Parish eventually grew to include at different times a chapel, three churches, and four schools in Brigus, two schools and two churches in Marysvale, three schools in Cupids, and two schools on the Goulds Road, and up until 1906, also served the people of what is now All Hallows Parish in North River.

In the early days of the Parish, a small chapel was constructed on the Chapel Lane property, but the congregation quickly outgrew the building, and went on to construct the Parish's first church on that same site, consecrated by Bishop Fleming in 1835. At the same time as the construction of the first church, Brigus merchant Charles Cozens filed for bankruptcy and his properties throughout the town went up for sale, including his farm, Mount Dorset, on the outskirts of Brigus. Thanks to a generous interest-free loan from Fr. Mackin's friend, William Munden, the Parish was able to purchase the property, which would eventually become the site of nearly every Parish building in Brigus, including St. Joseph's Sisters of Mercy Convent, both presbyteries, the second and third churches, and St. Edwards and Bishop O'Neill schools.

The second church, which was the first on the current site, was constructed under the guidance of Monsignor Edward Walsh and consecrated in 1885. This beautiful church stood until 1934, when tragedy struck the Parish during renovations, and a tobacco pipe was dropped by a roofer on freshly tarred shingles. The fire rapidly got out of control, and both the second church and the presbytery burned to the ground. Thanks to the efforts of parishioners, the current St. Patrick's Church and the new presbytery, locally known as 'The Palace' were built on the same site and opened in 1936.

The Parish's first church in Marysvale, Our Lady of the Snows Church, was constructed in 1935 using a very similar design to the current church in Brigus. That church was used until the late 1960s, and the current Our Lady of the Snows Church was constructed in 1974, thanks to the efforts of parishioners in the Marysvale-Georgetown area.


Torbay is located on the eastern side of the Avalon Peninsula. The community was named for Torbay, Devon, England. The name comes from the old Anglo-Saxon "Tor" which means "a rocky hill". Torbay has a history that dates back to the start of the early English fishery in the late 1500s and was first mapped in 1617 by John Mason. The census of 1677 indicated residents from “Tarr-Bay,” Newfoundland. By 1794, the population totalled 108 English settlers and 99 Irish settlers.

The Community of Torbay experienced three French Campaigns, the first as early as 1696. These invasions contributed to the eventual construction of the Torbay Battery in 1781. The Town was officially established soon after Colonel William Amherst and his troops landed, in 1762, on their way to recapturing the capital City of St. John’s.

Torbay is now a fast growing municipality in Newfoundland and Labrador with over seventy businesses, two schools, and numerous clubs and organizations.

Quidi Vidi

Quidi Vidi Village is nestled in the east end of downtown St. John's. Truly a small community within the city, Quidi Vidi is known for being one of the oldest fishing villages in North America. It's sheltered harbour was the perfect location for fisherman in early days of settlement in Newfoundland and, to this day, remains a useful fishing port. The main part of the Village, surrounding 'The Harbour' and 'The Gut,' consists of just over 60 homes, and has retained a distinct village feel, despite new housing developments and being within minutes of the downtown core. The fishing stages, and jutting stage heads, that line the shores of both the north and south side of 'The Harbour' and 'The Gut' contribute to this old world feeling which tourists from around the world come to see.

As with any settlement of this age, many of the families who are living in Quidi Vidi Village have been there for many generations. However, because of it's scenic beauty and quiet surroundings, this area of St. John's is sought after by a younger generation of newcomers as well as artists looking for inspiration.

The Battery

This collection was assembled by graduate students of Folklore 6740 in 2006 as part of a Public Sector Folklore graduate class. It is being used as part of a web site on Intangible Cultural Heritage and a museum exhibit at The Rooms Provincial Museum. It contains over fifteen hours of audio and video interviews with Battery residents, 900 photographs taken in 2006-7 and several historical photographs and maps. The images include homes, fishing premises, folk art, work and social activities, and the changing landscape of the community. The interviews are with current and former residents and deal with issues concerning change, the nature of home, the fishing industry, privacy, the weather, and life in the Battery, among other things.

Names of collectors:
Jedediah Baker, Rita Colavincenzo, Lynda Daneliuk, Jerry Dick, Lynn Matte, Hannah Mills-Woolsey, Maureen Power, & Heather Read.

Western Bay

Western Bay is an unincorporated community in Conception Bay, about 13 miles north of Carbonear. It was originally a farming and fishing settlement and was established as a Postal town in 1864. It had a population of 965 in 1901 and 508 in 1956.

Witless Bay

Witless Bay is located about 30 km from St. John's, on the Southern Shore of Newfoundland. According to legend, the name Witless Bay originally came from an early European habitant named Captain Whittle from Dorsetshire, England. The area was originally named Whittle's Bay, after this one family. Upon the death of Captain Whittle, his widow and children decided to return to England. Hence, the remaining settlers referred to Whittle's Bay as Whittle-less Bay and eventually, it became Witless Bay.

This community is a small, scenic outport, originally settled to participate in the cod fishery. Migratory fishermen began visiting the vicinity in the late 1600s and by the mid-1700s, Irish fishing servants began to settle, quickly outnumbering any English who had settled. In 1835 Witless Bay had a population of 542, and within ten years, this substantial population saw a school and chapel built. During settlement history, residents of Witless Bay kept gardens and tended livestock, such as sheep, to supplement the inshore cod fishery. However, residents were still susceptible to the eventual decline in the fishery. As the fishing industry rose and then fell, so too the population of Witless Bay grew and then dipped.

Nowadays, with the fishery all but gone, the main industry is tourism, with The Witless Bay Seabird Ecological Reserve as its main attraction. This reserve consists of four seabird colonies, which breed on four different islands in the surrounding waters. These islands, Gull Island, Green Island, Great Island and Pee Pee Island, provide breeding habitat for the largest Atlantic Puffin colony in North America and the world's second largest Leach's Storm Petrel colony.